评价摘要

评价摘要是来自评价网站的简短评价摘录或评分,通常是众多评价者给出的综合评分的平均值。当 Google 发现有效的评价或评分标记时,可能会显示丰富网页摘要,包含根据评价或评分得出的星标和其他摘要信息。除了文字评价之外,还可使用数字量表形式(如 1 到 5)的评分进行评估。评价摘要可能会出现在富媒体搜索结果或 Google 知识面板中。您可以为以下内容类型(和子类型)提供评分:

Google 还支持针对以下 schema.org 类型(及其子类型)的评价:

如何添加结构化数据

结构化数据是一种提供网页相关信息并对网页内容进行分类的标准化格式。如果您不熟悉结构化数据,可以详细了解结构化数据的工作原理

下面概述了如何构建、测试和发布结构化数据。如需获得向网页添加结构化数据的分步指南,请查看结构化数据 Codelab

  1. 添加必要属性。如需了解如何在网页上放置结构化数据,请观看 JSON-LD 结构化数据:网页上的插入位置
  2. 遵循指南
  3. 使用富媒体搜索结果测试验证您的代码。
  4. 部署一些包含结构化数据的网页,然后使用网址检查工具测试 Google 看到的网页样貌。请确保您的网页可供 Google 访问,不会因 robots.txt 文件、noindex 标记或登录要求而被屏蔽。如果网页看起来没有问题,您可以请求 Google 重新抓取您的网址
  5. 为了让 Google 随时了解日后发生的更改,我们建议您提交站点地图Search Console Sitemap API 可以帮助您自动执行此操作。

示例

您可以通过下面几种方法向网页添加 Review 结构化数据:

  • 添加简单评价。
  • 使用 review 属性将评价嵌入另一个 schema.org 类型。
  • 添加总体评分。如果您标记的内容同时包含作者和评价日期,则可以省略个别评价的评分。对于总体评价,您必须提供平均评分,才能显示丰富网页摘要。
  • 使用 aggregateRating 属性将总体评分嵌入另一个 schema.org 类型。

简单评价

下面是一个简单评价示例,您可以将该示例复制并粘贴到自己的 HTML 网页中。

JSON-LD


<html>
  <head>
  <title>Legal Seafood</title>
    <script type="application/ld+json">
    {
      "@context": "https://schema.org/",
      "@type": "Review",
      "itemReviewed": {
        "@type": "Restaurant",
        "image": "http://www.example.com/seafood-restaurant.jpg",
        "name": "Legal Seafood",
        "servesCuisine": "Seafood",
        "priceRange": "$$$",
        "telephone": "1234567",
        "address" :{
          "@type": "PostalAddress",
          "streetAddress": "123 William St",
          "addressLocality": "New York",
          "addressRegion": "NY",
          "postalCode": "10038",
          "addressCountry": "US"
        }
      },
      "reviewRating": {
        "@type": "Rating",
        "ratingValue": "4"
      },
      "name": "A good seafood place.",
      "author": {
        "@type": "Person",
        "name": "Bob Smith"
      },
      "reviewBody": "The seafood is great.",
      "publisher": {
        "@type": "Organization",
        "name": "Washington Times"
      }
    }
    </script>
  </head>
  <body>
  </body>
</html>

RDFa


 <html>
  <head>
    <title>Legal Seafood</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div vocab="https://schema.org/" typeof="Review">
      <div property="itemReviewed" typeof="Restaurant">
        <img property="image" src="https://example.com/photos/1x1/seafood-restaurant.jpg" alt="Legal Seafood"/>
        <span property="name">Legal Seafood</span>
        <span property="servesCuisine">Seafood</span>
        <span property="priceRange">$$$</span>
        <span property="telephone">1234567</span>
        <span property="address">123 William St, New York</span>
      </div>
      <span property="reviewRating" typeof="Rating">
        <span property="ratingValue">4</span>
      </span> stars -
      <b>"<span property="name">A good seafood place.</span>" </b>
      <span property="author" typeof="Person">
        <span property="name">Bob Smith</span>
      </span>
      <span property="reviewBody">The seafood is great.</span>
      <div property="publisher" typeof="Organization">
        <meta property="name" content="Washington Times">
      </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

微数据


 <html>
  <head>
  <title>Legal Seafood</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Review">
      <div itemprop="itemReviewed" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Restaurant">
        <img itemprop="image" src="https://example.com/photos/1x1/seafood-restaurant.jpg" alt="Legal Seafood"/>
        <span itemprop="name">Legal Seafood</span>
        <span itemprop="servesCuisine">Seafood</span>
        <span itemprop="priceRange">$$$</span>
        <span itemprop="telephone">1234567</span>
        <span itemprop="address">123 William St, New York</span>
      </div>
      <span itemprop="reviewRating" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Rating">
        <span itemprop="ratingValue">4</span>
      </span> stars -
      <b>"<span itemprop="name">A good seafood place.</span>" </b>
      <span itemprop="author" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Person">
        <span itemprop="name">Bob Smith</span>
      </span>
      <span itemprop="reviewBody">The seafood is great.</span>
      <div itemprop="publisher" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Organization">
        <meta itemprop="name" content="Washington Times">
      </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

嵌套评价

下面是一个嵌入 Product 中的评价示例。您可以将该示例复制并粘贴到自己的 HTML 网页中。

JSON-LD

<html>
  <head>
    <title>The Catcher in the Rye</title>
    <script type="application/ld+json">
    {
      "@context": "https://schema.org/",
      "@type": "Product",
      "brand": {
        "@type": "Brand",
        "name": "Penguin Books"
      },
      "description": "The Catcher in the Rye is a classic coming-of-age story: an story of teenage alienation, capturing the human need for connection and the bewildering sense of loss as we leave childhood behind.",
      "sku": "9780241984758",
      "mpn": "925872",
      "image": "http://www.example.com/catcher-in-the-rye-book-cover.jpg",
      "name": "The Catcher in the Rye",
      "review": {
        "@type": "Review",
        "reviewRating": {
          "@type": "Rating",
          "ratingValue": "5"
        },
        "author": {
          "@type": "Person",
          "name": "John Doe"
        },
        "reviewBody": "I really enjoyed this book. It captures the essential challenge people face as they try make sense of their lives and grow to adulthood."
      },
      "aggregateRating": {
        "@type": "AggregateRating",
        "ratingValue": "88",
        "bestRating": "100",
        "ratingCount": "20"
      },
      "offers": {
        "@type": "Offer",
        "url": "https://example.com/offers/catcher-in-the-rye",
        "priceCurrency": "USD",
        "price": "5.99",
        "priceValidUntil": "2020-11-05",
        "itemCondition": "https://schema.org/UsedCondition",
        "availability": "https://schema.org/InStock",
        "seller": {
          "@type": "Organization",
          "name": "eBay"
        }
      }
    }
    </script>
  </head>
  <body>
  </body>
</html>

RDFa

 <html>
  <head>
    <title>The Catcher in the Rye</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div vocab="https://schema.org/" typeof="Product">
      <img property="image" src="https://example.com/photos/1x1/catcher-in-the-rye-book-cover.jpg" alt="Catcher in the Rye"/>
      <span property="name">The Catcher in the Rye</span>
      <div property="review" typeof="Review"> Review:
        <span property="reviewRating" typeof="Rating">
            <span property="ratingValue">5</span> -
        </span>
        <b>"<span property="name">A masterpiece of literature</span>" </b> by
        <span property="author" typeof="Person">
          <span property="name">John Doe</span></span>, written on
        <meta property="datePublished" content="2006-05-04">May 4, 2006
        <div property="reviewBody">I really enjoyed this book. It captures the essential challenge people face as they try make sense of their lives and grow to adulthood.</div>
        <span property="publisher" typeof="Organization">
            <meta property="name" content="Washington Times">
        </span>
      </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

微数据

 <html>
  <head>
    <title>The Catcher in the Rye</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Product">
      <img itemprop="image" src="https://example.com/photos/1x1/catcher-in-the-rye-book-cover.jpg" alt="Catcher in the Rye"/>
      <span itemprop="name">The Catcher in the Rye</span>
      <div itemprop="review" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Review"> Review:
        <span itemprop="reviewRating" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Rating">
            <span itemprop="ratingValue">5</span> -
        </span>
        <b>"<span itemprop="name">A masterpiece of literature</span>" </b> by
        <span itemprop="author" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Person">
          <span itemprop="name">John Doe</span></span>, written on
        <meta itemprop="datePublished" content="2006-05-04">May 4, 2006
        <div itemprop="reviewBody">I really enjoyed this book. It captures the essential challenge people face as they try make sense of their lives and grow to adulthood.</div>
        <span itemprop="publisher" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Organization">
            <meta itemprop="name" content="Washington Times">
        </span>
      </div>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

总体评分

下面是一个总体评分示例,您可以将该示例复制并粘贴到自己的 HTML 网页中。

JSON-LD

<html>
  <head>
    <title>Legal Seafood</title>
    <script type="application/ld+json">
    {
      "@context": "https://schema.org/",
      "@type": "AggregateRating",
      "itemReviewed": {
        "@type": "Restaurant",
        "image": "http://www.example.com/seafood-restaurant.jpg",
        "name": "Legal Seafood",
        "servesCuisine": "Seafood",
        "telephone": "1234567",
        "address" : {
          "@type": "PostalAddress",
          "streetAddress": "123 William St",
          "addressLocality": "New York",
          "addressRegion": "NY",
          "postalCode": "10038",
          "addressCountry": "US"
        }
      },
      "ratingValue": "88",
      "bestRating": "100",
      "ratingCount": "20"
    }
    </script>
  </head>
  <body>
  </body>
</html>

RDFa

 <html>
  <head>
    <title>Legal Seafood</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div vocab="https://schema.org/" typeof="AggregateRating">
      <div property="itemReviewed" typeof="Restaurant">
        <img property="image" src="https://example.com/photos/1x1/seafood-restaurant.jpg" alt="Legal Seafood"/>
        <span property="name">Legal Seafood</span>
        <span property="servesCuisine">Seafood</span>
        <span property="telephone">1234567</span>
        <span property="address">123 William St, New York</span>
      </div>
      <span property="ratingValue">4.2</span> out of <span property="bestRating">5</span> stars -
      <span property="ratingCount">123</span> votes
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

微数据

 <html>
  <head>
    <title>Legal Seafood</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/AggregateRating">
      <div itemprop="itemReviewed" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Restaurant">
        <img itemprop="image" src="https://example.com/photos/1x1/seafood-restaurant.jpg" alt="Legal Seafood"/>
        <span itemprop="name">Legal Seafood</span>
        <span itemprop="servesCuisine">Seafood</span>
        <span itemprop="telephone">1234567</span>
        <span itemprop="address">123 William St, New York</span>
      </div>
      <span itemprop="ratingValue">4.2</span> out of <span itemprop="bestRating">5</span> stars -
      <span itemprop="ratingCount">123</span> votes
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

嵌套总体评分

下面是一个嵌入 Product 中的总体评分示例。您可以将该示例复制并粘贴到自己的 HTML 网页中。

JSON-LD

<html>
  <head>
  <title>Executive Anvil</title>
  <script type="application/ld+json">
  {
    "@context": "https://schema.org/",
    "@type": "Product",
    "name": "Executive Anvil",
    "image": [
      "https://example.com/photos/1x1/photo.jpg",
      "https://example.com/photos/4x3/photo.jpg",
      "https://example.com/photos/16x9/photo.jpg"
     ],
    "brand": {
      "@type": "Thing",
      "name": "ACME"
    },
    "aggregateRating": {
      "@type": "AggregateRating",
      "ratingValue": "4.4",
      "ratingCount": "89"
    },
    "offers": {
      "@type": "AggregateOffer",
      "lowPrice": "119.99",
      "highPrice": "199.99",
      "priceCurrency": "USD"
    }
  }
  </script>
  </head>
  <body>
  </body>
</html>

RDFa

 <html>
  <head>
    <title>Executive Anvil</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div vocab="https://schema.org/" typeof="Product">
     <span property="brand">ACME</span> <span property="name">Executive Anvil</span>
     <img property="image" src="https://example.com/photos/1x1/anvil_executive.jpg" alt="Executive Anvil logo" />
     <span property="aggregateRating"
           typeof="AggregateRating">
      Average rating: <span property="ratingValue">4.4</span>, based on
      <span property="ratingCount">89</span> reviews
     </span>
     <span property="offers" typeof="AggregateOffer">
      from $<span property="lowPrice">119.99</span> to
      $<span property="highPrice">199.99</span>
      <meta property="priceCurrency" content="USD" />
     </span>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

微数据

 <html>
  <head>
    <title>Executive Anvil</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/Product">
      <span itemprop="brand">ACME</span> <span itemprop="name">Executive Anvil</span>
      <img itemprop="image" src="https://example.com/photos/1x1/anvil_executive.jpg" />
      <span itemprop="aggregateRating" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/AggregateRating">
        Average rating: <span itemprop="ratingValue">4.4</span>, based on
        <span itemprop="ratingCount">89</span> reviews
      </span>
      <span itemprop="offers" itemscope itemtype="https://schema.org/AggregateOffer">
        from $<span itemprop="lowPrice">119.99</span> to
        $<span itemprop="highPrice">199.99</span>
        <meta itemprop="priceCurrency" content="USD" />
      </span>
    </div>
  </body>
</html>

指南

您的内容必须遵循以下指南,才能以富媒体搜索结果的形式呈现。

技术指南

  • 确保使用 schema.org/AggregateRating 来标记许多人对某项内容的总体评估。Google 可能会将总体评分显示为丰富网页摘要,对于某些类型的内容,也可能会显示为搜索结果中的回答。
  • 若想明确提及特定的产品或服务,可以将评价嵌套在另一种 schema.org 类型(如 schema.org/Bookschema.org/Recipe)的标记中,或者将一个 schema.org 类型用作 itemReviewed 属性的值。
  • 确保用户可以随时在标记的网页中查看您标记的评价和评分,并且能够一目了然地发现网页中包含评价内容。
  • 提供与具体项(而非项类别或项列表)有关的评价信息。例如,请参阅与列表项关联的常见错误
  • 如果评价摘要针对本地商家或组织,则您必须遵循以下这些额外的指南:
    • 如果接受评价的实体能够控制其收到的评价,则使用 LocalBusiness 或任何其他类型的 Organization 结构化数据的网页不符合要求,无法使用星级评价功能。例如,将有关实体 A 的评价直接添加到结构化数据中,或者通过嵌入式第三方微件将其呈现在实体 A 的网站上。
    • 评分必须直接来自用户。
    • 不要依靠人工编辑创建、策划或编制本地商家的评分信息,而应使用专家评价结构化数据
    • 网站必须直接从用户那里收集评分信息,而不是从其他网站收集。

结构化数据类型定义

要使您的结构化数据能够显示在搜索结果中,您必须为其添加必需的属性。您还可以添加建议的属性,以便向结构化数据添加更多信息,进而提供更好的用户体验。

Review

如需了解 Review 的完整定义,请访问 schema.org/Review

必需的属性
author

PersonOrganization

评价的作者。评价者的名称必须是一个有效的名称。例如,“周六之前享受五折优惠”就不是有效的评价者名称。

itemReviewed

Thing

被评价的项。但是,如果使用 review 属性将评价嵌入另一个 schema.org 类型,可以省略 itemReviewed 属性。被评项的有效类型是:

itemReviewed.name

Text

被评项的名称。如果使用 review 属性将评价嵌入另一个 schema.org 类型,您仍需提供被评项的 name。例如:

{
  "@context": "https://schema.org/",
  "@type": "Game",
  "name": "Firefly",
  "review": {
    "@type": "Review",
    "reviewRating": {
      "@type": "Rating",
      "ratingValue": "5"
    },
    "author": {
      "@type": "Person",
      "name": "John Doe"
    },
    "reviewBody": "I really enjoyed this game. You
    get to capture fireflies and put them in jars."
  }
}
reviewRating

Rating

在相应评价中给出的评分。评分可以是嵌套的 Rating 或更具体的子类型。最典型的子类型是 AggregateRating

reviewRating.ratingValue

NumberText

相应项获得的质量评分(以数字表示),可以是数字、分数或百分比(例如,“4”、“60%”或“6/10”)。如果未明确提供分制(例如,只提供了“4”这个评分),则系统会假定是 1-5 分的分制。如需采用其他分制,请使用 bestRatingworstRating

建议的属性
datePublished

Date

发布评价的日期,采用 ISO 8601 日期格式。

reviewRating.bestRating

Number

相应评分制中允许的最高值。仅当评分制不是 5 分制时,才需要指定 bestRating 属性。如果省略 bestRating,则系统会假定最高评分为 5 分。

reviewRating.worstRating

Number

相应评分制中允许的最低值。仅当评分制不是 5 分制时,才需要指定 worstRating 属性。如果省略 worstRating,系统会假定最低评分为 1 分。

AggregateRating

如需了解 AggregateRating 的完整定义,请访问 schema.org/AggregateRating

必需的属性
itemReviewed

Thing

被评分的项。如果使用 aggregateRating 属性将总体评分嵌入另一个 schema.org 类型,可以省略 itemReviewed 属性。被评项的有效类型是:

itemReviewed.name

Text

被评项的名称。如果使用 review 属性将评价嵌入另一个 schema.org 类型,您仍需提供被评项的 name。例如:

{
  "@context": "https://schema.org/",
  "@type": "Game",
  "name": "Firefly",
  "aggregateRating": {
    "@type": "AggregateRating",
    "ratingValue": "88",
    "bestRating": "100",
    "ratingCount": "20"
  }
}
ratingCount

Number

相应项在您的网站上获得的评分总数。至少需要 ratingCountreviewCount 其中之一。

reviewCount

Number

表示指给出评价的人数(无论是否附有评分)。至少需要 ratingCountreviewCount 其中之一。

ratingValue

NumberText

相应项获得的质量评分(以数字表示),可以是数字、分数或百分比(例如,“4”、“60%”或“6/10”)。如果未明确提供分制(例如,只提供了“4”这个评分),则系统会假定是 1-5 分的分制。如需采用其他分制,请使用 bestRatingworstRating

建议的属性
bestRating

Number

相应评分制中允许的最高值。仅当评分制不是 5 分制时,才需要指定 bestRating 属性。如果省略 bestRating,则系统会假定最高评分为 5 分。

worstRating

Number

相应评分制中允许的最低值。仅当评分制不是 5 分制时,才需要指定 worstRating 属性。如果省略 worstRating,则系统会假定最低评分为 1 分。

使用 Search Console 监控富媒体搜索结果

Search Console 是一款工具,可帮助您监控网页在 Google 搜索结果中的显示效果。即使没有注册 Search Console,您的网页也可能会显示在 Google 搜索结果中,但注册 Search Console 能够帮助您了解 Google 如何查看您的网站并做出相应的改进。建议您在以下情况下查看 Search Console:

  1. 首次部署结构化数据后
  2. 发布新模板或更新代码后
  3. 定期分析流量时

首次部署结构化数据后

等 Google 将网页编入索引后,请在相关的富媒体搜索结果状态报告中查看是否存在问题。 理想情况下,您应该会看到有效网页数增加了,但错误数或警告数没有增加。如果您发现结构化数据存在问题,请执行以下操作:

  1. 修正错误
  2. 检查实际网址,核实问题是否仍然存在。
  3. 使用状态报告请求验证

发布新模板或更新代码后

对网站进行重大更改后,请监控结构化数据的错误数和警告数是否增加了。
  • 如果您发现错误增多了,可能是因为您推出的某个新模板无法正常工作,或者您的网站以一种新的错误方式与现有模板交互。
  • 如果您发现有效内容项减少了(但错误数的增加情况并不对应),可能是因为您的网页中未再嵌入结构化数据。请通过网址检查工具了解导致此问题的原因。

定期分析流量时

请使用效果报告分析您的 Google 搜索流量。数据将显示您的网页在 Google 搜索结果中显示为富媒体搜索结果的频率、用户点击该网页的频率以及网页在搜索结果中的平均排名。您还可以使用 Search Console API 自动提取这些结果。

问题排查

如果您在实施结构化数据时遇到问题,请查看下面列出的一些实用资源。