Review

A review is someone's evaluation of something. We support reviews and ratings for a wide range of schema.org types, including businesses, products, and different creative works such as books or movies.

Google displays the following types of reviews in search results:

  • Critic review: A snippet from a longer review article that a single editor has created, curated, or compiled for a publisher.
  • Review snippets: A rich result (previously known as a rich snippet) of a review or rating markup from a review website, usually an average of the combined rating scores from reviewers. Review snippets appear in Google Search results either under the search result or in the Google Knowledge Cards.

Critic review

With your critic reviews displayed prominently in Google Search results, your readers will be able to easily find them and navigate to your website to read the complete reviews. Critic reviews appear in Search results with a snippet from the critic, the critic's name and the publisher icon. You can supply critic reviews for the following content types:

  • Local businesses
  • Movies
  • Books

Critic review examples

Business reviews

Embedded review

You can embed critic reviews inside your business listings. This is useful for sites that provide booking services for many businesses or for business listing aggregators.

Standalone reviews

You can provide standalone review blocks, which is suitable markup for sites that perform no direct function for the business being reviewed, such as news sites.

Critic review guidelines

In addition to the general structured data guidelines, review markup should follow the general guidelines and content-type guidelines listed below.

General

To be eligible for critic review, be aware of the following general guidelines:

  • Authoritative human editor(s) must create, curate, or compile content for critic reviews.
  • Profanity and vulgar language are discouraged. Reviews should be appropriate for a broad and diverse audience. Consequently, reviews containing vulgar or profane language may be ineligible for use.
  • Refer clearly to a specific product or service. Do this by nesting the review or ratings within the markup of another schema.org type—such as schema.org/Book or schema.org/LocalBusiness —or by using that schema.org typed element as a value for the itemReviewed property.
  • Make sure the reviews and ratings you mark up are readily available to users from the marked-up page. It should be immediately obvious to users that the page has review or ratings content.
  • Provide review and/or rating information about a specific item, not about a category or a list of items. For example, “hotels in Madrid,” “summer dresses,” or “cake recipes” are not specific items. See also our structured data guidelines for multiple entities on the same page.
  • No reviews are shown for adult-related products or services.
  • Single reviewer name needs to be valid. For example, "50% off until Saturday" is not a valid name for a reviewer.
  • Ratings that don't use a 5-point scale: By default, Google assumes that your site uses a 5-point scale, where 5 is the best possible rating and 1 is the worst, but you can use any other scale. If you do, you can mark up the best and worst ratings, and Google will scale that to the 5-star system used in rich snippets.
Local businesses

The following guidelines apply to critic reviews of local businesses:

  • Snippets must not be written or provided by the business or content provider unless they are genuine, independent, and unpaid editorial reviews.
  • Critic reviews must allow for customers to express both positive and negative sentiments. They may not be vetted by the business or restricted by the content provider based on the positive/negative sentiment of the review before submission to Google.
  • Critic reviews cannot be template sentences built from data or automated metrics. For example, the following is not acceptable: "Based on X number of responses, on average people experienced X with this business."
  • Critic reviews for multiple-location businesses such as retail chains or franchises can only be submitted for the specific business location for which they were written. In other words, critic reviews for multiple-location businesses cannot be syndicated or applied to all business locations of the same company.
  • There can't be any commercial agreements (paid or otherwise) to provide critic reviews between the content provider and the reviewed business.
  • Do not include critic reviews that are duplicate or similar across many businesses.
  • Only include critic reviews that have been directly produced by your site, not reviews from third-party sites or syndicated reviews.
Movies and Books

The following guidelines apply to critic reviews of movies and books:

  • The snippet must be an exact excerpt from the long-form body of the review. It should not be the review headline, a question or a teaser.
  • The snippet must clearly indicate an opinion about the review subject. It should not be factual (e.g. "Gravity" is a film by Alfonso Cuarón) or a plot synopsis (e.g. Dr. Ryan Stone is an engineer on her first space mission).
  • The snippet must make sense on its own and should not be confusing to someone who isn't reading the whole article.
  • The snippet must be complete (not cut off, truncated, or ending in elllipses) and well-formed (having correct punctuation and grammar) thought.

Critic review properties

The following properties should be populated for all reviews, regardless of the review subject.

You must include the required properties for your content to be eligible for display as a rich result. You can also include the recommended properties to add more information about your content, which could provide a better user experience.

Required properties
datePublished

Date

Date of the review's first publication, in ISO 8601 date format.

description

Text

Snippet from the body of the actual review that captures the author's opinion about the review subject. This snippet will be used on the Google Search result page, as shown in the mocks above. All of the following criteria should be met, else the review will be excluded from the feature.

  • The snippet cannot exceed 200 characters.
  • Use non-smart double quotation marks (") to denote titles, e.g. ""Gravity" is the best movie."
  • Follow the critic review guidelines in the content of the snippet.
itemReviewed

Local business, Movie, or Book

Annotation for the subject being reviewed. See below for details of each type of review.

publisher

Organization

Annotation for the publisher of the review.

publisher.name

Text

Name of the publisher of the review. For example, "The New York Times."

Recommended properties
aggregateRating

AggregateRating

Annotation for the average score assigned to the item being reviewed. This typically applies to user ratings rather than professional critic ratings.

aggregateRating.bestRating

Text

The highest value allowed in the reviewer's rating system. If this field is omitted, 5 is assumed. Letter grades are allowed (for example, "A").

aggregateRating.ratingCount

Number

The number of ratings given to the reviewed item.

aggregateRating.ratingValue

Text

The average rating given to the reviewed item. Letter grades are allowed (for example, "B+").

aggregateRating.worstRating

Text

The lowest value allowed in the reviewer's rating system. If this field is omitted, 1 is assumed. Letter grades are allowed (for example, "C-").

author

Person or Organization

The author of the review. The reviewer’s name needs to be a valid name.

author.name

Text

Name of the author of the review. Provide the full name of the author. The value should be capitalized correctly. Names comprised of entirely uppercase or lowercase letters will be edited such that the first letter of every word is capitalized.

author.sameAs

URL

URL to a page that unambiguously identified the author (for example, the author's official website, a profile page, a Wikipedia article).

inLanguage

Text

The BCP-47 language code of the review description (for example, "ja" is Japanese). Strongly recommended for non-English reviews.

publisher.sameAs

URL

The URL of the publisher's official website or Wikipedia page.

reviewRating

Rating or EndorsementRating

Rating: The rating given in this review. A nested Rating or more specific subtype, most typically AggregateRating.

EndorsementRating: A rating that expresses some level of positive endorsement for the item being reviewed. For example, inclusion in a "critic's pick" blog, a "Like" or "+1" on a social network.

EndorsementRating is a rating by itself (for example, “2 thumbs up”), while a Rating is a scale (3/5 stars).

Here’s an example:

"reviewRating": [{
  "@type": "Rating",
  "ratingValue": "3.0",
  "bestRating": "5",
  "worstRating": "0"
}, {
  "@type": "EndorsementRating",
  "name": "2 thumbs up",
  "ratingValue": "2"
}]

Additional EndorsementRating guidelines:

  • We recommend using a text string up to a few words in length (approximately 10-15 characters).
  • An Endorsement Rating may be part of a numeric scale or organized system.
  • If the scale is not numeric, try to indicate that the endorsement is positive to help consumers understand that the rating is broadly positive.
reviewRating.bestRating

Text

The highest value allowed in this rating system. The bestRating property is required if the rating system is not on a 5-point scale. If bestRating is omitted, 5 is assumed.

reviewRating.ratingValue

Text

The rating given to the reviewed item. Letter grades are allowed. For example, "B+".

reviewRating.worstRating

Text

The lowest value allowed in this rating system. The worstRating property is required if the rating system is not on a 5-point scale. If worstRating is omitted, 1 is assumed.

URL

URL

URL of the web page that contains the full text of the review.

  • If no value is provided, Google assumes that the crawled page is the location of the review in its entirety.
  • If your structured data is on a page other than the one containing the full text of the review, or if you have multiple URLs for the full-text review, you must populate this field.
  • The webpage indicated by this field must contain a full-length review that is longer than 300 words.
  • If you have duplicate pages for the same content, make sure you use the canonical URL.

Review subject properties

In addition to the critic review properties, you must define the specific properties for the review type that you want to implement.

You must include the required properties for your structured data to display in search results. You can also include the recommended properties to add more information to your structured data, which could provide a better user experience.

Local business
Properties
itemReviewed.address

PostalAddress

Address of the specific business location.

itemReviewed.address.addressCountry

Text

The 2-letter ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code.

itemReviewed.address.addressLocality

Text

City.

itemReviewed.address.addressRegion

Text

State or province (if applicable).

itemReviewed.address.postalCode

Text

Postal or zip code.

itemReviewed.address.streetAddress

Text

Street number, street name, and unit number (if applicable).

itemReviewed.name

Text

Name of the business that is the subject of the review.

itemReviewed.sameAs

URL

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the business. The official website of the business is strongly preferred.

Recommended properties
itemReviewed.geo

GeoCoordinates

Geographic coordinates of the business.

itemReviewed.geo.latitude

Number or Text

The latitude of the business location. The precision should be at least 5 decimal places.

itemReviewed.geo.longitude

Number or Text

The longitude of the business location. The precision should be at least 5 decimal places.

itemReviewed.telephone

Text

Business phone number, inclusive of country code. Specify the public phone number of the business normally used by customers.

Movie

Review.itemReviewed should be of type Movie and contain the following properties.

Required properties
itemReviewed.name

Text

Name of the movie that is the subject of the review.

itemReviewed.sameAs

URL

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the movie. URLs to the IMDB page, Wikipedia page, or official website are strongly preferred.

Recommended properties
itemReviewed.datePublished

Date

Original theatrical/direct-to-video release date of the movie, in ISO 8601 format.

itemReviewed.actor

Person

Annotation(s) for main cast of the movie.

itemReviewed.actor.name

Text

Name of the actor.

itemReviewed.actor.sameAs

URL

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the actor. URLs to the IMDB page or Wikipedia page are strongly preferred.

itemReviewed.director

Person

Annotation for the director of the movie.

itemReviewed.director.name

Text

Name of the director.

itemReviewed.director.sameAs

URL

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the director. URLs to the IMDB page or Wikipedia page are strongly preferred.

Book

Review.itemReviewed should be of type Book and contain the following properties.

Required properties
itemReviewed.author

Person

Annotation for the author of the book.

itemReviewed.author.name

Text

Name of the director.

itemReviewed.isbn

Text

ISBN of the book. In cases where no ISBN exists, use sameAs (see below).

itemReviewed.name

Text

Name of the book that is the subject of the review.

itemReviewed.sameAs

URL

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the book. URLs to the Google Play Books page, Wikipedia page, or official website are strongly preferred. The sameAs property isn't required if you define isbn.

Recommended properties
itemReviewed.author.sameAs

URL

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the author. URLs to the Wikipedia page are strongly preferred.

itemReviewed.datePublished

Date

Original publication date of the book, in ISO 8601 format.

Review snippet

When Google finds valid reviews or ratings markup, we may show a rich snippet that includes stars and other summary info from reviews or ratings. In addition to the text of the review, a rating is an evaluation described on a numeric scale (such as 1 to 5). You can supply ratings for the following content types:

  • Local businesses
  • Movies
  • Books
  • Music
  • Products

Review snippet examples

Here's an example of a simple review.

JSON-LD

Here's an example of a simple review in JSON-LD using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

RDFa

Here's an example of a simple review in RDFa using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

Microdata

Here's an example of a simple review in Microdata using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

You can embed a review into another schema.org type using its review property.

JSON-LD

Here's an example of a embedded review in JSON-LD using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

RDFa

Here's an example of a embedded review in RDFa using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

Microdata

Here's an example of a embedded review in Microdata using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

You can add ratings to your reviews.

JSON-LD

Here's an example of a review with ratings in JSON-LD using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

RDFa

Here's an example of a review with ratings in RDFa using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

Microdata

Here's an example of a review with ratings in Microdata using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

You can omit the rating for an individual review if your marked-up content contains both an author and a review date. For aggregate reviews, you must supply the average rating for the rich snippet to display.

JSON-LD

Here's an example of an aggregate rating in JSON-LD using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

RDFa

Here's an example of an aggregate rating in RDFa using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

Microdata

Here's an example of an aggregate rating in Microdata using the Structured Data Testing Tool:

Review snippet guidelines

In addition to the general structured data guidelines, review markup should follow these additional guidelines.

General

To be eligible for review snippet, be aware of the following general guidelines:

  • Aggregate ratings: An aggregate evaluation of an item by many people should be marked up as a schema.org/AggregateRating. Google may display aggregate ratings as rich snippets or, for certain types of items, answers in search results.
  • Refer clearly to a specific product or service. Do this by nesting the review or ratings within the markup of another schema.org type—such as schema.org/Book or schema.org/LocalBusiness —or by using that schema.org typed element as a value for the itemReviewed property.
  • Make sure the reviews and ratings you mark up are readily available to users from the marked-up page. It should be immediately obvious to users that the page has review or ratings content.
  • Provide review and/or rating information about a specific item, not about a category or a list of items. For example, “hotels in Madrid,” “summer dresses,” or “cake recipes” are not specific items. See also our structured data guidelines for multiple entities on the same page.
  • No reviews are shown for adult-related products or services.
  • Single reviewer name needs to be valid. For example, "50% off until Saturday" is not a valid name for a reviewer.
  • Ratings that don't use a 5-point scale: By default, Google assumes that your site uses a 5-point scale, where 5 is the best possible rating and 1 is the worst, but you can use any other scale. If you do, you can mark up the best and worst ratings, and Google will scale that to the 5-star system used in rich snippets.
Local Businesses

Google may display information from aggregate ratings markup in the Google Knowledge Cards. The following guidelines apply to review snippets in knowledge cards for local businesses:

  • Ratings must be sourced directly from users.
  • Don't rely on human editors to create, curate or compile ratings information for local businesses. These types of reviews are critic reviews.
  • Sites must collect ratings information directly from users and not from other sites.

Review snippet definitions

You must include the required properties for your structured data to display in search results. You can also include the recommended properties to add more information to your structured data, which could provide a better user experience.

Common review properties

Required properties
author

Person or Organization

The author of the review. The reviewer’s name needs to be a valid name.

itemReviewed

Thing

The item that is being reviewed. This needs to be a valid schema.org type. However, if the review is embedded into another schema.org type using the review property, the itemReviewed property can be omitted.

reviewRating.bestRating

Number

The highest value allowed in this rating system. The bestRating property is only required if the rating system is not on a 5-point scale. If bestRating is omitted, 5 is assumed.

reviewRating.worstRating

Number

The lowest value allowed in this rating system. The worstRating property is only required if the rating system is not on a 5-point scale. If worstRating is omitted, 1 is assumed.

Recommended properties
datePublished

Date

The date that the review was published, in ISO 8601 date format.

publisher

Organization

The publisher of the review.

reviewBody

Text

The actual body of the review.

reviewRating

Rating

The rating given in this review. A nested Rating or more specific subtype, most typically AggregateRating.

reviewRating.ratingValue

Number

A numerical quality rating for the item.

AggregateRating

The full definition of AggregateRating is available at schema.org/AggregateRating.

Required properties
bestRating

Number

The highest value allowed in this rating system. The bestRating property is only required if the rating system is not a 5-point scale. If bestRating is omitted, 5 is assumed.

itemReviewed

Thing

The item that is being rated. This needs to be a valid schema.org type. However, if the aggregate rating is embedded into another schema.org type, using aggregateRating property, then there is no need to mark up the itemReviewed property.

ratingCount

Number

The total number of ratings for the item on your site. At least one of ratingCount or reviewCount is required.

reviewCount

Number

Specifies the number of people who provided a review with or without an accompanying rating. At least one of ratingCount or reviewCount is required.

ratingValue

Number

A numerical quality rating for the item.

worstRating

Number

The lowest value allowed in this rating system. The worstRating property is only required if the rating system is not a 5-point scale. If worstRating is omitted, 1 is assumed.

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