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Emscripten’s embind

It binds JS to your wasm!

In my last wasm article I talked about how to compile a C library to wasm so you can use it on the web. One thing that stood out to me (and to many readers) is the crude and slightly awkward way you have to manually declare which functions of your wasm module you are using. To refresh your mind, this is the code snippet I am talking about:

const api = {
  version: Module.cwrap('version', 'number', []),
  create_buffer: Module.cwrap('create_buffer', 'number', ['number', 'number']),
  destroy_buffer: Module.cwrap('destroy_buffer', '', ['number']),

Here we declare the names of the functions that we marked with EMSCRIPTEN_KEEPALIVE, what their return types are, and what the types of their arguments are. Afterwards we can use the functions on the api object to invoke these functions. However, using wasm this way doesn't support strings and requires you to manually move chunks of memory around which makes many library APIs very tedious to use. Isn't there a better way? Why yes there is, otherwise what would this article be about?

C++ name mangling

While the developer experience would be reason enough to build a tool that helps with these bindings, there's actually a more pressing reason: When you compile C or C++ code, each file is compiled separately. Then a linker takes care of munging all these so-called object files together and turning them into a wasm file. With C, the names of the functions are still available in the object file for the linker to use. All you need to be able to call a C function is the name, which we are providing as a string to cwrap().

C++ on the other hand supports function overloading, meaning you can implement the same function multiple times as long as the signature is different (e.g. differently typed parameters). At the compiler level, a nice name like add would get mangled into something that encodes the signature in the function name for the linker. As a result, we wouldn't be able to look up our function with its name anymore.

Enter embind

embind is part of the Emscripten toolchain and provides you with a bunch of C++ macros that allow you to annotate C++ code. You can declare which functions, enums, classes or value types you are planning to use from JavaScript. Let's start simple with some plain functions:

#include <emscripten/bind.h>

using namespace emscripten;

double add(double a, double b) {
  return a + b;

std::string exclaim(std::string message) {
  return message + "!";

  function("add", &add);
  function("exclaim", &exclaim)

Compared to my previous article, we are not including emscripten.h anymore, as we don't have to annotate our functions with EMSCRIPTEN_KEEPALIVE anymore. Instead we have an EMSCRIPTEN_BINDINGS section in which we list the names under which we want to expose our functions to JavaScript.

To compile this file, we can use the same setup (or, if you want, the same Docker image) as in the previous article. To use embind, we add the --bind flag:

$ emcc --bind -O3 add.cpp

Now all that's left is whipping up an HTML file that loads our freshly created wasm module:

<script src="/a.out.js"></script>
Module.onRuntimeInitialized = _ => {
  console.log(Module.add(1, 2.3));
  console.log(Module.exclaim("hello world"));

As you can see, we aren't using cwrap() anymore. This just works straight out of the box. But more importantly, we don't have to worry about manually copying chunks of memory to make strings work! embind gives you that for free, along with type checks:

DevTools errors when you invoke a function with the wrong number of arguments
or the arguments have the wrong

This is pretty great as we can catch some errors early instead of dealing with the occasionally quite unwieldy wasm errors.


Many JavaScript constructors and functions use is options objects. It's a nice pattern in JavaScript, but extremely tedious to realize in wasm manually. embind can help here, too!

For example, I came up with this incredibly useful C++ function that processes my strings, and I urgently want to use it on the web. Here is how I did that:

#include <emscripten/bind.h>
#include <algorithm>

using namespace emscripten;

struct ProcessMessageOpts {
  bool reverse;
  bool exclaim;
  int repeat;

std::string processMessage(std::string message, ProcessMessageOpts opts) {
  std::string copy = std::string(message);
  if(opts.reverse) {
    std::reverse(copy.begin(), copy.end());
  if(opts.exclaim) {
    copy += "!";
  std::string acc = std::string("");
  for(int i = 0; i < opts.repeat; i++) {
    acc += copy;
  return acc;

    .field("reverse", &ProcessMessageOpts::reverse)
    .field("exclaim", &ProcessMessageOpts::exclaim)
    .field("repeat", &ProcessMessageOpts::repeat);

  function("processMessage", &processMessage);

I am defining a struct for the options of my processMessage() function. In the EMSCRIPTEN_BINDINGS block, I can use value_object to make JavaScript see this C++ value as an object. I could also use value_array if I preferred to use this C++ value as an array. I also bind the processMessage() function, and the rest is embind magic. I can now call the processMessage() function from JavaScript without any boilerplate code:

  "hello world",
    reverse: false,
    exclaim: true,
    repeat: 3
)); // Prints "hello world!hello world!hello world!"


For completeness sake, I should also show you how embind allows you to expose entire classes, which brings a lot of synergy with ES6 classes. You can probably start to see a pattern by now:

#include <emscripten/bind.h>
#include <algorithm>

using namespace emscripten;

class Counter {
  int counter;

  Counter(int init) :
    counter(init) {

  void increase() {

  int squareCounter() {
    return counter * counter;

    .function("increase", &Counter::increase)
    .function("squareCounter", &Counter::squareCounter)
    .property("counter", &Counter::counter);

On the JavaScript side, this almost feels like a native class:

<script src="/a.out.js"></script>
Module.onRuntimeInitialized = _ => {
  const c = new Module.Counter(22);
  console.log(c.counter); // prints 22
  console.log(c.counter); // prints 23
  console.log(c.squareCounter()); // prints 529

What about C?

embind was written for C++ and can only be used in C++ files, but that doesn't mean that you can't link against C files! To mix C and C++, you only need to separate your input files into two groups: One for C and one for C++ files and augment the CLI flags for emcc as follows:

$ emcc --bind -O3 --std=c++11 a_c_file.c another_c_file.c -x c++ your_cpp_file.cpp


embind gives you great improvements in the developer experience when working with wasm and C/C++. This article does not cover all the options embind offers. If you are interested, I recommend continuing with embind's documentation. Keep in mind that using embind can make both your wasm module and your JavaScript glue code bigger by up to 11k when gzip'd — most notably on small modules. If you only have a very small wasm surface, embind might cost more than it's worth in a production environment! Nonetheless, you should definitely give it a try.

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