Subir un video

Esta guía proporciona y explica una secuencia de comandos Python que sube un video de YouTube con la API de datos de YouTube. El código utiliza la biblioteca cliente de las API de Google para Python. (También hay bibliotecas cliente disponibles para otros lenguajes de programación populares).

Nota: La secuencia de comandos de muestra no realiza controles de errores.

Requisitos

  • Python 2.5 o superior

  • Instalar la Biblioteca cliente de API de Google para Python (google-api-python-client)

  • Registrar la aplicación en Google de modo que pueda utilizar el protocolo OAuth 2.0 para autorizar el acceso a los datos de usuario.

  • Para utilizar los pasos de OAuth 2.0 con esta secuencia de comandos, debes crear un archivo client_secrets.json que contenga información de APIs Console. El archivo debe estar en el mismo directorio que la secuencia de comandos.

    {
      "web": {
        "client_id": "[[INSERT CLIENT ID HERE]]",
        "client_secret": "[[INSERT CLIENT SECRET HERE]]",
        "redirect_uris": [],
        "auth_uri": "https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/auth",
        "token_uri": "https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/token"
      }
    }

Solicitudes de muestra

Esta solicitud carga un video y define diversos campos de metadatos, como el título, la descripción, las palabras clave y la categoría. Todos los argumentos de línea de comandos se definen en detalle en la siguiente sección.

python upload_video.py --file="/tmp/test_video_file.flv"
                       --title="Summer vacation in California"
                       --description="Had a great time surfing in Santa Cruz"
                       --keywords="surfing,Santa Cruz"
                       --category="22"
                       --privacyStatus="private"

En este ejemplo, la secuencia de comandos genera e inserta el recurso video a continuación para el video:

{
  "snippet": {
    "title": "Summer vacation in California",
    "description": "Had a great time surfing in Santa Cruz",
    "tags": ["surfing", "Santa Cruz"],
    "categoryId": "22"
  },
  "status": {
    "privacyStatus": "private"
  }
}

Invocación de la secuencia de comandos

La siguiente lista define los argumentos de la línea de comandos de la secuencia de comandos:

  • file – Este argumento identifica la ubicación del archivo de video que se va a subir.

    Example:
    --file="/home/path/to/file.mov"
  • title – El título del video que se va a subir. El valor predeterminado es Test title.

    Example:
    --title="Summer vacation in California"
  • description – La descripción del video que se va a subir. El valor predeterminado es Test description.

    Example:
    --description="Had a great time surfing in Santa Cruz"
  • category – El ID de categoría de la categoría de video de YouTube asociada al video. La categoría predeterminada es 22, que hace referencia a la categoría Personas y blogs.

    Example:
    --category="22"
  • keywords – Una lista de palabras clave separadas por comas, asociadas al video. El valor predeterminado es una cadena vacía.

    Example:
    --keywords="surfing"
  • privacyStatus – El estado de privacidad del video. El comportamiento predeterminado cuando se sube un video es que sea visible públicamente (public). Al cargar videos de prueba, tal vez desees especificar un valor de argumento --privacyStatus para asegurarte de que sean privados o que no aparezcan en la lista. Los valores válidos son public, private y unlisted.

    Example:
    --privacyStatus="private"

Código de muestra

La muestra funcional completa para la secuencia de comandos upload_video.py se detalla a continuación:

#!/usr/bin/python

import httplib
import httplib2
import os
import random
import sys
import time

from apiclient.discovery import build
from apiclient.errors import HttpError
from apiclient.http import MediaFileUpload
from oauth2client.client import flow_from_clientsecrets
from oauth2client.file import Storage
from oauth2client.tools import argparser, run_flow


# Explicitly tell the underlying HTTP transport library not to retry, since
# we are handling retry logic ourselves.
httplib2.RETRIES = 1

# Maximum number of times to retry before giving up.
MAX_RETRIES = 10

# Always retry when these exceptions are raised.
RETRIABLE_EXCEPTIONS = (httplib2.HttpLib2Error, IOError, httplib.NotConnected,
  httplib.IncompleteRead, httplib.ImproperConnectionState,
  httplib.CannotSendRequest, httplib.CannotSendHeader,
  httplib.ResponseNotReady, httplib.BadStatusLine)

# Always retry when an apiclient.errors.HttpError with one of these status
# codes is raised.
RETRIABLE_STATUS_CODES = [500, 502, 503, 504]

# The CLIENT_SECRETS_FILE variable specifies the name of a file that contains
# the OAuth 2.0 information for this application, including its client_id and
# client_secret. You can acquire an OAuth 2.0 client ID and client secret from
# the Google Developers Console at
# https://console.developers.google.com/.
# Please ensure that you have enabled the YouTube Data API for your project.
# For more information about using OAuth2 to access the YouTube Data API, see:
#   https://developers.google.com/youtube/v3/guides/authentication
# For more information about the client_secrets.json file format, see:
#   https://developers.google.com/api-client-library/python/guide/aaa_client_secrets
CLIENT_SECRETS_FILE = "client_secrets.json"

# This OAuth 2.0 access scope allows an application to upload files to the
# authenticated user's YouTube channel, but doesn't allow other types of access.
YOUTUBE_UPLOAD_SCOPE = "https://www.googleapis.com/auth/youtube.upload"
YOUTUBE_API_SERVICE_NAME = "youtube"
YOUTUBE_API_VERSION = "v3"

# This variable defines a message to display if the CLIENT_SECRETS_FILE is
# missing.
MISSING_CLIENT_SECRETS_MESSAGE = """
WARNING: Please configure OAuth 2.0

To make this sample run you will need to populate the client_secrets.json file
found at:

   %s

with information from the Developers Console
https://console.developers.google.com/

For more information about the client_secrets.json file format, please visit:
https://developers.google.com/api-client-library/python/guide/aaa_client_secrets
""" % os.path.abspath(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__),
                                   CLIENT_SECRETS_FILE))

VALID_PRIVACY_STATUSES = ("public", "private", "unlisted")


def get_authenticated_service(args):
  flow = flow_from_clientsecrets(CLIENT_SECRETS_FILE,
    scope=YOUTUBE_UPLOAD_SCOPE,
    message=MISSING_CLIENT_SECRETS_MESSAGE)

  storage = Storage("%s-oauth2.json" % sys.argv[0])
  credentials = storage.get()

  if credentials is None or credentials.invalid:
    credentials = run_flow(flow, storage, args)

  return build(YOUTUBE_API_SERVICE_NAME, YOUTUBE_API_VERSION,
    http=credentials.authorize(httplib2.Http()))

def initialize_upload(youtube, options):
  tags = None
  if options.keywords:
    tags = options.keywords.split(",")

  body=dict(
    snippet=dict(
      title=options.title,
      description=options.description,
      tags=tags,
      categoryId=options.category
    ),
    status=dict(
      privacyStatus=options.privacyStatus
    )
  )

  # Call the API's videos.insert method to create and upload the video.
  insert_request = youtube.videos().insert(
    part=",".join(body.keys()),
    body=body,
    # The chunksize parameter specifies the size of each chunk of data, in
    # bytes, that will be uploaded at a time. Set a higher value for
    # reliable connections as fewer chunks lead to faster uploads. Set a lower
    # value for better recovery on less reliable connections.
    #
    # Setting "chunksize" equal to -1 in the code below means that the entire
    # file will be uploaded in a single HTTP request. (If the upload fails,
    # it will still be retried where it left off.) This is usually a best
    # practice, but if you're using Python older than 2.6 or if you're
    # running on App Engine, you should set the chunksize to something like
    # 1024 * 1024 (1 megabyte).
    media_body=MediaFileUpload(options.file, chunksize=-1, resumable=True)
  )

  resumable_upload(insert_request)

# This method implements an exponential backoff strategy to resume a
# failed upload.
def resumable_upload(insert_request):
  response = None
  error = None
  retry = 0
  while response is None:
    try:
      print "Uploading file..."
      status, response = insert_request.next_chunk()
      if 'id' in response:
        print "Video id '%s' was successfully uploaded." % response['id']
      else:
        exit("The upload failed with an unexpected response: %s" % response)
    except HttpError, e:
      if e.resp.status in RETRIABLE_STATUS_CODES:
        error = "A retriable HTTP error %d occurred:\n%s" % (e.resp.status,
                                                             e.content)
      else:
        raise
    except RETRIABLE_EXCEPTIONS, e:
      error = "A retriable error occurred: %s" % e

    if error is not None:
      print error
      retry += 1
      if retry > MAX_RETRIES:
        exit("No longer attempting to retry.")

      max_sleep = 2 ** retry
      sleep_seconds = random.random() * max_sleep
      print "Sleeping %f seconds and then retrying..." % sleep_seconds
      time.sleep(sleep_seconds)

if __name__ == '__main__':
  argparser.add_argument("--file", required=True, help="Video file to upload")
  argparser.add_argument("--title", help="Video title", default="Test Title")
  argparser.add_argument("--description", help="Video description",
    default="Test Description")
  argparser.add_argument("--category", default="22",
    help="Numeric video category. " +
      "See https://developers.google.com/youtube/v3/docs/videoCategories/list")
  argparser.add_argument("--keywords", help="Video keywords, comma separated",
    default="")
  argparser.add_argument("--privacyStatus", choices=VALID_PRIVACY_STATUSES,
    default=VALID_PRIVACY_STATUSES[0], help="Video privacy status.")
  args = argparser.parse_args()

  if not os.path.exists(args.file):
    exit("Please specify a valid file using the --file= parameter.")

  youtube = get_authenticated_service(args)
  try:
    initialize_upload(youtube, args)
  except HttpError, e:
    print "An HTTP error %d occurred:\n%s" % (e.resp.status, e.content)

Recursos adicionales

  • La guía de Autenticación proporciona detalles completos para implementar OAuth 2.0.

  • La documentación de referencia explica los campos que hay en un recurso de video.