COVID-19 通知 (SpecialAnnouncement) 结构化数据(Beta 版)

受 COVID-19 发展态势影响,政府、卫生部门和学校等许多组织都发布了会影响活动安排和日常生活其他方面的紧急通知。通知内容包括关闭设施、调整活动时间以及开设新的医疗设施(例如检测中心)。以下是特别通知的一些示例:

  • 居家避疫指令通知
  • 设施关闭通知(如学校停课或公共交通停运)
  • 政府福利通知(如失业补助,带薪休假或一次性补助)
  • 隔离指南
  • 旅行限制
  • 关于开设新的免下车检测中心的通知
  • 关于将活动从线下转为线上举办或取消活动的通知
  • 关于修改营业时间和购物限制的通知
  • 疾病传播统计信息和地图
Google 搜索中的 COVID-19 通知示例

如何实现 COVID 19 通知

您可通过以下两种方法实施 COVID-19 通知:

  • 在您的网页中添加 SpecialAnnouncement 结构化数据(推荐做法):结构化数据是一种提供网页相关信息并对网页内容进行分类的标准化格式。如果您不熟悉结构化数据,可以详细了解结构化数据的运作方式。如需实施 COVID-19 通知结构化数据,请按照这些步骤操作
  • 在 Search Console 中提交通知:如果您无权访问网站的 HTML,或者您需要快速提交通知(但是没有时间实施结构化数据),可以在 Search Console 中提交通知。该工具仅适用于设置为在发布后的一个月内失效的短期通知。此外,您目前无法更新通知(借助结构化数据,您可以更新通知并添加更多详情或延长日期)。了解详情

如何添加结构化数据

结构化数据是一种提供网页相关信息并对网页内容进行分类的标准化格式。如果您不熟悉结构化数据,可以详细了解结构化数据的运作方式

下面概述了如何构建、测试和发布结构化数据。如需获得向网页添加结构化数据的分步指南,请查看结构化数据 Codelab

  1. 添加必要属性。根据您使用的格式,了解在网页上的什么位置插入结构化数据
  2. 遵循指南
  3. 使用富媒体搜索结果测试验证您的代码,并修复所有严重错误。此外,您还可以考虑修正该工具中可能会标记的任何非严重问题,因为这些这样有助于提升结构化数据的质量(不过,要使内容能够显示为富媒体搜索结果,并非必须这么做)。
  4. 部署一些包含您的结构化数据的网页,然后使用网址检查工具测试 Google 看到的网页样貌。请确保您的网页可供 Google 访问,不会因 robots.txt 文件、noindex 标记或登录要求而被屏蔽。如果网页看起来没有问题,您可以请求 Google 重新抓取您的网址
  5. 为了让 Google 随时了解日后发生的更改,我们建议您提交站点地图Search Console Sitemap API 可以帮助您自动执行此操作。

在 Search Console 中为您的网站提交 COVID-19 通知(Beta 版)

政府机构和官方卫生组织可以在其网站上提交重要的 COVID-19 通知,尤其是在无法使用结构化数据的情况下,此工具尤其有用。通知内容包括关闭设施、调整活动时间以及开设新的医疗设施(例如检测中心)。Google 搜索可以利用这些信息更好地理解您的网页内容,并在网页结果旁边向相关人员显示此类重要通知。

打开 COVID-19 通知提交工具

功能可用性

由于 COVID-19 形势的紧迫性,此功能处于积极开发阶段,您可能会发现相关要求或指南有所变化。我们关注的是来自卫生组织和政府机构的通知。您可能无法立即在 Google 搜索中看到相关结果。您可以提前提供结构化数据或在 Search Console 中提交通知,确保在该功能推出时您的通知符合条件。这样有助于 Google 了解 COVID-19 通知背后的数据,我们会根据这些数据扩大范围,为更多用例提供支持。

示例

居家避疫通知

下面是一个会影响多个县的居家避疫通知示例。

JSON-LD


<html>
  <head>
    <title>Shelter-in-place announcement</title>
    <script type="application/ld+json">
    {
      "@context": "https://schema.org",
      "@type": "SpecialAnnouncement",
      "name": "Shelter-in-place for 3 California counties",
      "text": "As of 11:59 pm on March 17, 2024, all individuals in the 3 counties must strictly follow the provisions in this new Order. This new Order will be in effect through March 30, 2024.",
      "datePosted": "2024-03-17T08:00",
      "expires": "2024-03-24T23:59",
      "quarantineGuidelines": "https://example.org/california/shelter-in-place/",
      "diseasePreventionInfo": "https://example.org/california/prevention-tips/",
      "spatialCoverage": [
        {
          "type": "AdministrativeArea",
          "name": "San Francisco County, CA"
        },
        {
          "type": "AdministrativeArea",
          "name": "Marin County, CA"
        },
        {
          "type": "AdministrativeArea",
          "name": "Santa Clara County, CA"
        }
      ]
    }
    </script>
  </head>
  <body>
  </body>
</html>

微数据


<html itemscope itemprop="SpecialAnnouncement" itemtype="https://schema.org/SpecialAnnouncement">
<head>
  <title itemprop="name">Shelter-in-place for 3 California counties</title>
</head>
<body>
  <p itemprop="datePosted" content="2024-03-17T08:00">March 17, 2024</p>
  <meta itemprop="expires" content="2024-03-30T08:00" />
  <p itemprop="text">As of 11:59 pm on March 17, 2024, all individuals in the 3 counties must strictly follow the provisions in this new Order. This new Order will be in effect through March 30, 2024.</p>
  <p itemprop="quarantineGuidelines" content="https://example.org/california/shelter-in-place/"><a href="https://example.org/california/shelter-in-place/">Learn more</a>.</p>
  <meta itemprop="diseasePreventionInfo" content="https://example.org/california/prevention-tips/" />
  <div itemprop="spatialCoverage" itemtype="https://schema.org/AdministrativeArea" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="San Francisco County, CA" />
    </div>
  <div itemprop="spatialCoverage" itemtype="https://schema.org/AdministrativeArea" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="Marin County, CA" />
  </div>
  <div itemprop="spatialCoverage" itemtype="https://schema.org/AdministrativeArea" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="Santa Clara County, CA" />
  </div>
</body>
</html>

在一个网页上有多项更新

下面是一个包含多个通知的动态更新网页示例。

JSON-LD


<html>
  <head>
    <title>CA Updates on COVID-19</title>
    <script type="application/ld+json">
  [{
      "@context": "https://schema.org",
      "@type": "SpecialAnnouncement",
      "name": "Shelter-in-place for 3 California counties",
      "text": "<a href=https://example.org/california/executive-order-123>Executive order 123</a> requires residents to shelter-in-place through April 30. Additional disease prevention and quarantine guidelines are also available.",
      "datePosted": "2024-04-01T08:00",
      "expires": "2024-05-03T23:59",
      "quarantineGuidelines": "https://example.org/california/shelter-in-place",
      "diseasePreventionInfo": "https://example.org/california/prevention-tips",
      "spatialCoverage": [
        {
          "type": "AdministrativeArea",
          "name": "Santa Clara County, CA"
        },
        {
          "type": "AdministrativeArea",
          "name": "Marin County, CA"
        },
        {
          "type": "AdministrativeArea",
          "name": "Santa Clara County, CA"
        }
      ]
    },
  {
      "@context": "https://schema.org",
      "@type": "SpecialAnnouncement",
      "name": "New information regarding worker benefits during COVID-19",
      "text": "A new summary chart explains the benefits for workers that are impacted by COVID-19. <a href=https://example.org/california/summary-of-benefits>Learn more</a>.",
      "datePosted": "2024-03-30T08:00",
      "expires": "2024-04-06T23:59",
      "newsUpdatesAndGuidelines": "https://example.org/california/worker-benefits-covid-19",
      "spatialCoverage":
        {
          "type": "State",
          "name": "CA"
        }
    },
    {
      "@context": "https://schema.org",
      "@type": "SpecialAnnouncement",
      "name": "Updates on key federal changes to make food and health care more accessible",
      "text": "The Federal Government is making food and health care more accessible.",
      "datePosted": "2024-03-29T08:00",
      "expires": "2024-04-05T23:59",
      "newsUpdatesAndGuidelines": "https://example.org/california/food-health-guidelines",
      "diseasePreventionInfo": "https://example.org/california/prevention-tips",
      "spatialCoverage":
        {
          "type": "State",
          "name": "CA"
        }
      }
  ]
    </script>
  </head>
  <body>
  </body>
</html>

微数据


<html>
<head>
  <title itemprop="name">CA Updates on COVID-19</title>
</head>
<body>
<div itemscope itemprop="SpecialAnnouncement" itemtype="https://schema.org/SpecialAnnouncement">
  <h2 itemprop="name">Shelter-in-place for 3 California counties</h2>
  <meta itemprop="datePosted" content="2024-03-17T08:00" />
  <meta itemprop="expires" content="2024-03-30T08:00" />
  <p itemprop="text"><a href=https://example.org/california/executive-order-123>Executive order 123</a> requires residents to shelter-in-place through April 30. Additional disease prevention and quarantine guidelines are also available.</p>
  <p itemprop="quarantineGuidelines" content="https://example.org/california/shelter-in-place/"><a href="https://example.org/california/shelter-in-place/">Learn more</a>.</p>
  <meta itemprop="diseasePreventionInfo" content="https://example.org/california/prevention-tips/" />
  <div itemprop="spatialCoverage" itemtype="https://schema.org/AdministrativeArea" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="San Francisco County, CA" />
    </div>
  <div itemprop="spatialCoverage" itemtype="https://schema.org/AdministrativeArea" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="Marin County, CA" />
  </div>
  <div itemprop="spatialCoverage" itemtype="https://schema.org/AdministrativeArea" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="Santa Clara County, CA" />
  </div>
</div>
<div itemscope itemprop="SpecialAnnouncement" itemtype="https://schema.org/SpecialAnnouncement">
  <h2 itemprop="name">New information regarding worker benefits during COVID-19</h2>
  <meta itemprop="datePosted" content="2024-03-30T08:00" />
  <meta itemprop="expires" content="2024-04-06T23:59" />
  <p itemprop="text">A new summary chart explains the benefits for workers that are impacted by COVID-19. <a href=https://example.org/california/summary-of-benefits>Learn more</a>.</p>
  <meta itemprop="newsUpdatesAndGuidelines" content="https://example.org/california/worker-benefits-covid-19" />
  <div itemprop="spatialCoverage" itemtype="https://schema.org/State" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="CA" />
    </div>
</div>
<div itemscope itemprop="SpecialAnnouncement" itemtype="https://schema.org/SpecialAnnouncement">
  <h2 itemprop="name">Updates on key federal changes to make food and health care more accessible</h2>
  <meta itemprop="datePosted" content="2024-03-29T08:00" />
  <meta itemprop="expires" content="2024-04-05T23:59" />
  <p itemprop="text">The Federal Government is making food and health care more accessible.</p>
  <meta itemprop="newsUpdatesAndGuidelines" content="https://example.org/california/food-health-guidelines" />
  <meta itemprop="diseasePreventionInfo" content="https://example.org/california/prevention-tip" />
  <div itemprop="spatialCoverage" itemtype="https://schema.org/State" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="CA" />
    </div>
</div>
</body>
</html>

政府福利通知

下面是一个面向小型企业的政府新福利通知示例。

JSON-LD


<html>
  <head>
    <title>New Paycheck Protection Program for small business</title>
    <script type="application/ld+json">
  {
    "@context": "https://schema.org",
    "@type": "SpecialAnnouncement",
    "name": "New Paycheck Protection Program for small business",
    "text": "Example Administration announces a new loan that helps small businesses keep their workforce employed during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis.",
    "datePosted": "2024-03-30T08:00",
    "expires": "2024-04-24T23:59",
    "category": "https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q81068910",
    "spatialCoverage": {
      "type": "Country",
        "name": "US"
        },
    "governmentBenefitsInfo": {
      "@type": "GovernmentService",
      "name": "Paycheck Protection Program",
      "url":  "https://www.sba.gov/funding-programs/loans/coronavirus-relief-options/paycheck-protection-program-ppp"
        }
      }
    }
  }
    </script>
  </head>
  <body>
  </body>
</html>

微数据


<html itemscope itemprop="SpecialAnnouncement" itemtype="https://schema.org/SpecialAnnouncement">
<head>
  <title itemprop="name">New Paycheck Protection Program for small business</title>
</head>
<body>
  <meta itemprop="datePosted" content="2024-03-30T08:00" />
  <meta itemprop="expires" content="2024-04-24T23:59" />
  <p itemprop="text">Example Administration announces a new loan that helps small businesses keep their workforce employed during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis.</p>
  <div itemprop="spatialCoverage" itemtype="https://schema.org/Country" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="US" />
  </div>
  <div itemprop="governmentBenefitsInfo" itemtype="https://schema.org/GovernmentService" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="url" content="https://www.example.gov/funding-programs/loans/coronavirus-relief-options/paycheck-protection-program-ppp" />
    <meta itemprop="name" content="US Small Business Administration" />
  </div>
</body>
</html>

学校停课通知

下面是一个学校停课通知示例。

JSON-LD


<html>
  <head>
    <title>COVID-19 School Announcements</title>
    <script type="application/ld+json">
  {
    "@context": "https://schema.org",
    "@type": "SpecialAnnouncement",
    "name": "COVID-19 School Announcements",
    "text": "All schools will remain closed through a minimum of May 1 in alignment with school
    districts across all Bay Area counties.",
    "datePosted": "2024-03-17T08:00",
    "expires": "2024-03-24T23:59",
    "schoolClosuresInfo": "https://example-school-district.org/announcements/extended-closure-notice",
    "announcementLocation": {
      "@type": "CivicStructure",
      "name": "Example School",
      "url": "https://example-school.org/"
    }
  }
    </script>
  </head>
  <body>
  </body>
</html>

微数据


<html itemscope itemprop="SpecialAnnouncement" itemtype="https://schema.org/SpecialAnnouncement">
<head>
  <title itemprop="name">COVID-19 School Announcements</title>
</head>
<body>
  <p itemprop="datePosted" content="2024-03-17T08:00">March 17, 2024</p>
  <meta itemprop="expires" content="2024-03-30T08:00" />
  <p itemprop="text">All schools will remain closed through a minimum of May 1 in alignment with school districts across all Bay Area counties.</p>
  <p itemprop="schoolClosuresInfo" content="https://example-school-district.org/announcements/extended-closure-notice"><a href="https://example-school-district.org/announcements/extended-closure-notice">Learn more</a>.</p>
  <div itemprop="announcementLocation" itemtype="https://schema.org/CivicStructure" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="Example School" />
    <meta itemprop="url" content="https://example-school.org/" />
  </div>
</body>
</html>

COVID-19 检测机构通知

下面是一个 COVID-19 检测机构通知示例。

JSON-LD


<html>
  <head>
    <title>COVID-19 testing facility announcement</title>
    <script type="application/ld+json">
    {
      "@context": "https://schema.org",
      "@type": "SpecialAnnouncement",
      "name": "Example Health Care announces COVID-19 testing facility",
      "text": "Example Health Care's same-day primary care program is offering drive-through testing, by appointment, for SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.",
      "datePosted": "2024-03-16T08:00",
      "expires": "2024-03-24T23:59",
      "gettingTestedInfo": "https://med.example.edu/news/covid-19-testing-facility.html",
      "announcementLocation" : {
        "@type": "CivicStructure",
        "name": "Example Health Care",
        "url": "https://examplehealthcare.org/"
        }
      }
    </script>
  </head>
  <body>
  </body>
</html>

微数据


<html itemscope itemprop="SpecialAnnouncement" itemtype="https://schema.org/SpecialAnnouncement">
<head>
  <title itemprop="name">Example Health Care announces COVID-19 testing facility</title>
</head>
<body>
  <p itemprop="datePosted" content="2024-03-17T08:00">March 17, 2024</p>
  <meta itemprop="expires" content="2024-03-30T08:00" />
  <p itemprop="text">Example Health Care's same-day primary care program is offering drive-through testing, by appointment, for SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.</p>
  <p itemprop="gettingTestedInfo" content="https://med.example.edu/news/covid-19-testing-facility.html"><a href="https://med.example.edu/news/covid-19-testing-facility.html">Learn more</a>.</p>
  <div itemprop="announcementLocation" itemtype="https://schema.org/CivicStructure" itemscope>
    <meta itemprop="name" content="Example Health Care" />
    <meta itemprop="url" content="https://examplehealthcare.org/" />
  </div>
</body>
</html>

指南

如需使您的内容能够在 Google 搜索上以特别通知的形式显示,您的内容必须遵循以下指南。

结构化数据类型定义

为了使您的内容能够在 Google 搜索上显示为特别通知,您必须为其添加必要属性。如果您掌握了其他信息,我们推荐您同时添加建议属性。

SpecialAnnouncement

如需了解 SpecialAnnouncement 的完整定义,请访问 schema.org。SpecialAnnouncement 在 Schema.org 上仍处于开发阶段,但您还是可以开始使用这项属性。 Google 支持的属性如下:

必需的属性
datePosted

DateTime

COVID-19 通知的发布日期,采用 ISO-8601 格式

name

Text

COVID-19 通知的简短标题。例如 "Stanford announces COVID-19 testing facility"

text,或指向更多信息的具体属性

您必须添加 text 或以下指向通知详情的属性之一,具体取决于通知主题:

建议属性
announcementLocation

LocalBusinessCivicStructure

SpecialAnnouncement 有关的特定地点。例如,开放时间比较特殊的具体检测机构或企业。对于较大的地理区域(如隔离整个区域),我们建议您使用 spatialCoverage

{
  "@context": "https://schema.org",
  "@type": "SpecialAnnouncement",
  "announcementLocation": {
    "@type": "CivicStructure",
    "name": "Palo Alto High School"
    "url":   "https://example-school.org/"
  }
}
announcementLocation.name

Text

通知重点关注的地点的名称,如检测机构的名称。

announcementLocation.url

URL

可供用户详细了解通知地点的网址,如检测机构的网址,说明了实际地点、开放时间以及哪些人符合检测条件。

diseasePreventionInfo

URLWebContent

疾病预防信息(如适用于相应通知)。

diseaseSpreadStatistics

URLWebContentDatasetObservation

与疾病传播情况相关的统计信息(如适用于相应通知),可以是 WebContent,或直接以 Dataset 描述,或作为数据集内的特定 Observation 描述。如果提供了 WebContent 网址,则所指明的网页还可能包含更多标记。

expires

DateTime

内容失效日期,采用 ISO-8601 格式;在此日期之后,内容不再有用或不再提供。 如果您不知道内容何时失效,请勿添加此属性。

gettingTestedInfo

URLWebContent

针对 MedicalCondition 接受 COVID-19 检测的相关信息(如适用于相应通知)。

governmentBenefitsInfo

GovernmentService

与 COVID-19 相关的新政府福利信息(如适用于相应通知)。如果您添加了 governmentBenefitsInfo,则必须添加以下属性:

有关这些属性的工作原理的完整示例,请参阅政府福利通知示例

governmentBenefitsInfo.name

Text

政府福利的名称。例如:"Paycheck Protection Program"

governmentBenefitsInfo.url

URL

政府福利的详情网址。

newsUpdatesAndGuidelines

URLWebContent

包含最新 COVID-19 新闻资讯和指南的网页(如适用于相应通知)。它可以是网站上包含 SpecialAnnouncement 标记的主页面,但不作强制要求。

publicTransportClosuresInfo

URLWebContent

COVID-19 公共交通停运信息(如适用于相应通知)。

quarantineGuidelines

URLWebContent

COVID-19 隔离指南(如适用于相应通知)。

schoolClosuresInfo

URLWebContent

COVID-19 学校停课信息(如适用于相应通知)。

spatialCoverage

Place

特别通知重点关注的地理区域(如适用)。例如,通知内容可能是会影响多个区域的居家避疫指令。 如果通知会同时影响某个区域和某个特定地点(如关闭服务于整个区域的图书馆),请同时使用 spatialCoverageannouncementLocation

{
  "@context": "https://schema.org",
  "@type": "SpecialAnnouncement",
  "spatialCoverage": [
    {
    "type": "AdministrativeArea",
    "name": "San Francisco County, CA"
    },
    {
    "type": "AdministrativeArea",
    "name": "Marin County, CA"
    },
    {
    "type": "AdministrativeArea",
    "name": "Santa Clara County, CA"
    }
  ]
}
text

Text

COVID-19 通知的文字摘要,可以包含链接和列表等 HTML 内容。有效的 HTML 标记包括:<h1><h6><br><ol><ul><li><a><p><div><b><strong><i><em>

例如:

"Stanford Health Care's same-day primary care program is offering
 drive-through testing, by appointment, for SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19."
travelBans

URLWebContent

COVID-19 旅行禁令信息(如适用于相应通知)。

Monitor rich results with Search Console

Search Console is a tool that helps you monitor how your pages perform in Google Search. You don't have to sign up for Search Console to be included in Google Search results, but it can help you understand and improve how Google sees your site. We recommend checking Search Console in the following cases:

  1. After deploying structured data for the first time
  2. After releasing new templates or updating your code
  3. Analyzing traffic periodically

After deploying structured data for the first time

After Google has indexed your pages, look for issues using the relevant Rich result status report. Ideally, there will be an increase of valid items, and no increase in invalid items. If you find issues in your structured data:

  1. Fix the invalid items.
  2. Inspect a live URL to check if the issue persists.
  3. Request validation using the status report.

After releasing new templates or updating your code

When you make significant changes to your website, monitor for increases in structured data invalid items.
  • If you see an increase in invalid items, perhaps you rolled out a new template that doesn't work, or your site interacts with the existing template in a new and bad way.
  • If you see a decrease in valid items (not matched by an increase in invalid items), perhaps you are no longer embedding structured data in your pages. Use the URL Inspection tool to learn what is causing the issue.

Analyzing traffic periodically

Analyze your Google Search traffic using the Performance Report. The data will show you how often your page appears as a rich result in Search, how often users click on it and what is the average position you appear on search results. You can also automatically pull these results with the Search Console API.

问题排查

如果您在实施或调试结构化数据时遇到问题,请查看下面列出的一些实用资源。

  • 如果您使用了内容管理系统 (CMS) 或其他人负责管理您的网站,请向其寻求帮助。请务必向其转发列明问题细节的任何 Search Console 消息。
  • Google 不能保证使用结构化数据的功能一定会显示在搜索结果中。如需查看导致 Google 无法将您的内容显示为富媒体搜索结果的各种常见原因,请参阅结构化数据常规指南
  • 您的结构化数据可能存在错误。请参阅结构化数据错误列表
  • 如果您的网页受到结构化数据手动操作的影响,其中的结构化数据将会被忽略(但该网页仍可能会出现在 Google 搜索结果中)。如需修正结构化数据问题,请使用“人工处置措施”报告
  • 再次查看相关指南,确认您的内容是否未遵循指南。问题可能是因为出现垃圾内容或使用垃圾标记导致的。不过,问题可能不是语法问题,因此富媒体搜索结果测试无法识别这些问题。
  • 针对富媒体搜索结果缺失/富媒体搜索结果总数下降进行问题排查
  • 请等待一段时间,以便 Google 重新抓取您的网页并重新将其编入索引。请注意,网页发布后,Google 可能需要几天时间才会找到和抓取该网页。有关抓取和索引编制的常见问题,请参阅 Google 搜索抓取和索引编制常见问题解答
  • Google 搜索中心论坛中发帖提问。