Formatting placeholders

This page explains how to format placeholders in commands and code samples. For more information about formatting code, command-line syntax, and code samples, see the following links:

Placeholders in sample code and commands represent values that the user must replace when they use the sample input. Placeholders in example output can also represent other values that vary. In general, a placeholder has a descriptive name as a default value.

For example, the placeholder PROJECT_ID represents a project ID in sample code, commands, and example output.

In example output, the placeholder HTTP_RESPONSE_CODE represents an HTTP response code; the reader isn't expected to set this to a specific value.

Placeholders

There are several ways to format placeholders, depending on whether you're working in HTML or Markdown, or whether the placeholder is inline or in a code block. For details, see the following sections.

Placeholders in inline text

If your placeholders occur in a sentence, use the following formatting:

  • In HTML, wrap placeholders in <code><var> elements, like this:

    <code><var>PLACEHOLDER_NAME</var></code>
  • In Markdown, wrap inline placeholders in backticks (`), and use an asterisk (*) before the first backtick and after the second one (*`PLACEHOLDER_NAME`*).

Placeholders in code blocks

If your placeholders are in a block of code, use the following formatting:

  • In HTML, wrap the code block in a <pre> element, and tag placeholders with <var> elements, like this:

    <pre class="devsite-click-to-copy">
    gcloud compute forwarding-rules create <var>FORWARDING_RULE_NAME</var> \
        --global | --region=<var>REGION</var> \
        --load-balancing-scheme=<var>LOAD_BALANCING_SCHEME</var> \
        --network=<var>NETWORK</var> \
        ...
    </pre>
  • In Markdown, wrap the code block in a code fence (```). Inside a code fence, you can't apply formatting like bold or italic.
    ```
    PLACEHOLDER_NAME
    ```

Placeholder text

Use uppercase characters with underscore delimiters.

For example, in HTML:

Recommended:

  • .../<var>API_NAME</var>
  • .../<var>METHOD_NAME</var>

Not recommended:

  • .../<var>API-name</var>
  • .../<var>API_name</var>
  • .../<var>API name</var>
  • .../<var>api_name</var>
  • .../<var>api-name</var>
  • .../<var>apiName</var>

In Markdown:

Recommended:

  • .../*API_NAME*
  • .../*METHOD_NAME*

If the context in which your placeholders appear makes using uppercase characters with underscore delimiters a bad idea, use something else that makes sense to you, but be internally consistent.

Don't include possessive pronouns in placeholders.

Not recommended:

  • .../<var>MY_API_NAME</var>
  • .../<var>YOUR_API_NAME</var>

Explaining placeholders

When you use a placeholder in text or code, explain the placeholder the first time you use it. It's not necessary to repeat the explanation in the document unless doing so might benefit the user—for example, in circumstances such as the following:

  • Your document is lengthy.
  • You've introduced several other placeholders in a long procedure.
  • Your document isn't intended to be read from beginning to end.

The following is an example of a command that uses a placeholder with an explanation of that placeholder:

<pre class="devsite-click-to-copy">
gcloud compute instances create <var>INSTANCE_NAME</var> \
    --metadata enable-guest-attributes=TRUE
</pre>

<p>Replace <code><var>INSTANCE_NAME</var></code> with the name that
you want your new VM instance to have.</p>

Single placeholder

Use the following format for a single placeholder:

  • Replace PLACEHOLDER with a description of what the placeholder represents.

Recommended:

  1. Stream the build logs to the Google Cloud Console:

    gcloud builds log --stream=BUILD_ID

    Replace BUILD_ID with the ID of the WORKING build that you copied in the preceding step.

Two or more placeholders

Use the following format for two or more placeholders:

  • Follow the command line with a descriptive list of the placeholders used in the command line. Explain what each placeholder represents even if the placeholder value is intuitive to you.
  • Introduce this list with Replace the following:
  • List the placeholders in the order in which they appear in the command line.
  • Tag each placeholder with <code><var> elements, followed by a colon and a description that starts with a lowercase letter—for example:

    <li><code><var>INSTANCE_NAME</var></code>: description</li>
  • If the description contains an example, introduce it with an em dash or such as—for example:
    <li><code><var>INSTANCE_NAME</var></code>: description&mdash;for example,...</li>
    <li><code><var>INSTANCE_NAME</var></code>: description, such as...</li>

Recommended:

  1. In Cloud Shell, set the environment variables:

    export ONPREM_PROJECT=ON_PREM_PROJECT_NAME \
        export ONPREM_ZONE=ZONE

    Replace the following:

    • ON_PREM_PROJECT_NAME: the Google Cloud project name for your on-premises project
    • ZONE: a Google Cloud zone that's close to your location—for example, us-east1

Placeholders in output

If you provide an output example, explain any placeholders that appear in sample output:

  • Use <var> elements to identify the placeholder text in the output.
  • Follow the example output with a list of the placeholders used in the example.
  • Introduce the list of placeholders with This output includes the following values:
  • List the placeholders in the order in which they appear in the example.
  • Tag each placeholder with <code><var> elements, followed by a colon and a description that starts with a lowercase letter—for example:

    <li><code><var>INSTANCE_NAME</var></code>: description</li>
  • If the description contains an example, introduce it with an em dash or such as—for example:
    <li><code><var>INSTANCE_NAME</var></code>: description&mdash;for example,...</li>
    <li><code><var>INSTANCE_NAME</var></code>: description, such as...</li>

For more information, see Output from commands.

Recommended:

Response

The output is similar to the following:

{
 "name": "operations/build/PROJECT_ID/OPERATION_ID",
 "metadata": {
  "@type": "type.googleapis.com/google.devtools.cloudbuild.v1.BuildOperationMetadata",
  "build": {
   "id": "BUILD_ID",
   "status": "QUEUED",
   "createTime": "2019-09-20T15:55:29.353258929Z",
   "steps": [
    {
     "name": "gcr.io/compute-image-tools/gce_vm_image_import:release",
     "env": [
      "BUILD_ID=BUILD_ID"
     ],
     "args": [
      "-timeout=7056s",
      "-image_name=IMAGE_NAME",
      "-client_id=api",
      "-data-disk",
      "-source_file=SOURCE_FILE"
     ]
    }
   ],
   "timeout": "7200s",
   "projectId": "PROJECT_ID",
   "logsBucket": "gs://PROJECT_NUMBER.cloudbuild-logs.googleusercontent.com",
   "options": {
    "logging": "LEGACY"
   },
   "logUrl": "https://console.cloud.google.com/gcr/builds/BUILD_ID?project=PROJECT_NUMBER"
  }
 }
}

This output includes the following values:

  • PROJECT_ID: the project ID for the project that the image was imported into
  • OPERATION_ID: the ID of the import operation
  • BUILD_ID: the ID of the build for the import operation
  • IMAGE_NAME: the name of the image to be imported
  • SOURCE_FILE: the URI for the image in Cloud Storage—for example, gs://my-bucket/my-image.vmdk
  • PROJECT_NUMBER: the number for the import project